Absolutely everyone should know how the human papillomavirus is transmitted. More than half of the world's population are already carriers of papillomavirus. HPV is a special microorganism capable of reproducing in epithelial cells and preventing their division. More often activated in the body in women. Are people carriers of the virus contagious and what are the ways of its transmission? Only having full information about what are the ways of transmission of the virus, you can warn yourself and loved ones from infection. The main source of infection is the carrier of the HPV virus.
Among the mechanisms under the influence of which you can become infected, there are:
- vertical (from mother to child during labor).
The implementation of the contact mechanism is carried out through the sexual and contact-household ways. Therefore, HPV can be transmitted through:
- handshake and kiss;
- the use of other people's hygiene products, which include a razor, washcloth, soap, towel and cosmetics;
- wearing clothes that belong to the carrier of the infection;
- visiting public baths, saunas and swimming pools.
Oncogenic types of the virus are transmitted sexually. The risk of infection increases many times in those people who are promiscuous in partners. The more often they change, the higher the likelihood of infection, and even using a condom you cannot be sure of your safety.
You can also get infected with homosexual relationships, because it is for them that trauma to the epithelium and mucosa is typical. And a condom in this case also does not really help. The presence of warts on the body of a sexual partner also signals the possibility of acquiring HPV through microtraumas on the body.
Pregnant women who are carriers of HPV should be aware of the possibility of infecting a child during its passage through the birth canal.
Infection is carried out only in the presence of characteristic growths in the genital area and cervix. At the same time, papillomavirus infection in a child manifests itself in the form of growths in the larynx, which are of particular danger. It will be difficult for the baby to breathe and eat, perhaps even suffocation.
Conditions conducive to infection
Contact with a person who is a carrier of HPV does not necessarily mean infection. Only if there is damage to the skin and mucous membranes, papillomavirus can enter the body. Accordingly, HPV is much easier to get infected if the skin has:
During sexual intercourse, it must be borne in mind that various kinds of injuries of the skin can be on tissues adjacent to the genitals. When using a condom, infection can also be carried out.
The mucosa becomes uninsured from infection with a depressed immune system. The appearance of papillomas and warts in the genital area is often triggered by the presence of other infections in the body. If such growths are found, treatment should be carried out not only by the HPV carrier, but also by his partner.
Violation of the microflora of the vagina in women and even the intestines in both sexes can also lead to a decrease in immunity, and, accordingly, the papillomavirus enters the body more easily.
Even if papillomavirus infection is already present in the body, you can not notice any of its manifestations. It is not at all necessary that growths should appear on the body. Often papillomavirus occurs in the latent stage and absolutely without symptoms.
HPV can be compared to the herpes virus, which is also present in the body of most of the population, but characteristic symptoms on the body are far from always indicating its presence. With a strong immune system, papillomavirus may not multiply.
Only under favorable conditions for the development of HPV infection begins to intensify. There is an active reproduction of virions in the nuclei of cells, which leads to disturbances in cell reproduction. Using human cells, papillomavirus creates copies of itself. As a result, uncontrolled cell reproduction and the appearance of neoplasms on the body.
Conditions that provoke the activation of the virus:
- exacerbation of any diseases that can be called chronic;
- recent infectious diseases;
- the presence of an intestinal infection;
- congenital immunodeficiency;
- non-compliance with diet and diet;
- work in production, which belongs to the category of harmful;
- frequent stressful situations.
The activation of the virus can be caused by various factors that, to a greater or lesser extent, affect the state of the immune system. Only with depressed immunity, neoplasms appear on the body.
There are a number of preventive measures, due to which the human papillomavirus infection is highly likely not to enter the body.
- all damage to the skin should be treated with antiseptics;
- use only personal hygiene products;
- in public saunas, baths and pools it is necessary to use slippers made of rubber;
- any disease must be treated in a timely manner;
- loyalty to one sexual partner who can be trusted;
- use a condom for any sexual intercourse. Although this does not guarantee safety, nevertheless, through a condom, the papillomavirus enters the body of both women and men with less probability;
- regular exercise;
- hardening of the body;
- adherence to sleep and nutrition.
Such precautions should be taken not only to avoid infection with HPV, but also other sexually transmitted infections. The condom provides a guarantee against infection with many diseases that provoke the HPV virus to activate.
In the case of the presence of a virus in the body of pregnant women and its manifestations in the genital area, a full examination and removal of such neoplasms is necessary. If there are papillomas on the genitals, a cesarean section is recommended for a woman in order to prevent infection of the child during passage through the birth canal.
There is a special vaccine against highly oncogenic strains of viruses, which is recommended primarily for women under the age of 26 and adolescents. Even under the condition that the carrier of the HPV itself is vaccinated, its immunity improves markedly and the virus passes into an inactive phase.
In this case, it must be taken into account that the virus does not disappear from the body, and, accordingly, the person remains a carrier of the infection. For safety reasons, he needs to use a condom during intercourse and use only personal hygiene products.
More prone to such manifestations of HPV as growths on the body of the body of women. Their immune system is much weaker and does not resist the virus well. But at the same time, there is no reason to believe that a man need not worry about the presence of a virus. It also poses a threat, being a source of infection.
Any neoplasms on the body cannot be removed independently. All actions must be carried out only under the supervision of the attending physician.
Infection can be avoided. It is enough to follow personal hygiene, use a condom during sexual intercourse, carefully monitor your own skin and pay attention to the presence of growths on the body of loved ones.